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Anaemia in the elderly: An aetiologic profile of a prospective cohort of 95 hospitalised patients

Published:April 16, 2012DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2012.03.013

      Abstract

      Background and objectives

      Anaemia is a significant problem in the elderly, and the cause of anaemia in approximately one third of the general population is unidentified. To date, only a few studies have focused on hospitalised patients.

      Patients and methods

      We prospectively included anaemic patients (according to OMS criteria) aged 65 years and older who were hospitalised in the internal medicine department. The typical clinical data were collected, and a standardised set of biological tests, including cupraemia was performed.

      Results

      Of 360 total patients, 191 (53%) patients were anaemic; however, 96 patients were excluded because their data were incomplete. Of the remaining 95 patients that were included, 45 were men (47.4%) and 50 were women (52.6%); the mean patient age was 79.7 years (66–101 years). At least one cause of anaemia was diagnosed in 87 of the 95 (91.6%) patients, and anaemia was multifactorial in 44 of the 95 (46.3%) cases. The five most prominent causes of anaemia were inflammation (62.1%), iron deficiency (30.5%), folic acid deficiency (21%), chronic renal failure (17.9%) and cobalamin deficiency (11.6%). Microcytosis was present in only 27.5% of the patients who had an iron deficiency, and macrocytosis was present in only 7.4% of the patients who had a folic acid and/or cobalamin deficiency. The cause of anaemia could not be identified for 8 of the patients. The cupraemia was normal in all the patients.

      Conclusion

      A predefined protocol for older hospitalised patients was ability to identify the aetiology of anaemia in 91.6% of the cases; strikingly, anaemia was frequently caused by more than one factor (43.5%). Diagnostic orientation based on the mean corpuscular volume does not appear to correlate with mean cellular volume profile. Finally, anaemia caused by an unknown aetiology is rare and copper deficiency was not documented in any case.

      Keywords

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