Management of patients with type 2 diabetes and multiple chronic conditions: A Delphi consensus of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine

Published:November 13, 2015DOI:



      To develop consensus-based recommendations for the management of chronic complex patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using a two round Delphi technique.


      Experts from the Diabetes and Obesity Working Group (DOWG) of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI) reviewed MEDLINE, PubMed, SCOPUS and Cochrane Library databases up to September 2014 to gather information on organization and health care management, stratification of therapeutic targets and therapeutic approach for glucose control in chronic complex patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
      A list of 6 recommendations was created and rated by a panel of 75 experts from the DOWG by email (first round) and by open discussion (second round). A written document was produced and sent back to DOWG experts for clarification purposes.


      A high degree of consensus was achieved for all recommendations summarized as 1) there is a need to redesign and test new health care programs for chronic complex patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; 2) therapeutic targets in patients with short life expectancy should be individualized in accordance to their personal, clinical and social characteristics; 3) patients with chronic complex conditions and type 2 diabetes mellitus should be stratified by hypoglycemia risk; 4) age and specific comorbidities should guide the objectives for glucose control; 5) the risk of hypoglycemia should be a key factor when choosing a treatment; and 6) basal insulin analogs compared to human insulin are cost-effective options.


      The assessment and recommendations provided herein represent our best professional judgment based on current data and clinical experience.


      CCM (Chronic Care Model), CGW (Core Working Group), DOWG (Diabetes and Obesity Working Group), NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn), SEMI (Spanish Society of Internal Medicine), T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus)


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