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Cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers in Portuguese hypercholesterolemic adults: A cross-sectional study

  • Isabel Andrade
    Affiliations
    Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ESTESC-Coimbra Health School, Ciências Complementares, Rua 5 Outubro, S. Martinho do Bispo, Apartado 7006, 3046-854 Coimbra, Portugal

    CEF-Center for Pharmaceutical Studies, Health Sciences Campus, Pharmacy Faculty, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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  • Lèlita Santos
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine, Coimbra University Hospitals, Medicine Faculty, University of Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
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  • Fernando Ramos
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: CEF-Center for Pharmaceutical Studies, Health Sciences Campus, Pharmacy Faculty, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal. Tel.: +351 239 488492; fax: +351 239 488 503.
    Affiliations
    CEF-Center for Pharmaceutical Studies, Health Sciences Campus, Pharmacy Faculty, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal

    CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Pharmacy Faculty, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Published:November 11, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2015.10.022

      Highlights

      • Average cholesterol absorption markers levels were higher than the synthesis markers.
      • The predictors of higher levels of cholesterol absorption markers were higher age and female sex.
      • Cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers can complement traditional lipid profile.

      Abstract

      Objective

      The dynamics of cholesterol homeostasis and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are complex and multifactorial, to which adds individual variability in the proportion of cholesterol from exogenous versus endogenous sources. The aim of this study was to undertake the first characterization of cholesterol absorption and synthesis profiles in Portuguese hypercholesterolemic adults through the quantification of surrogate markers, and the analysis of the predictive value of age and sex on the cholesterol homeostasis biomarkers.

      Methods

      Serum samples for the measurement of lipid profiles and cholesterol homeostasis markers were obtained for 100 men and 112 women, aged 30–65, with TC ≥5.2 mmol/L (~200 mg/dL) and/or LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L (~100 mg/dL), none of whom were on any lipid-lowering therapy.

      Results

      Overall, sex-specific significant differences were observed in the cholesterol homeostasis markers and lipid profiles; women had lower cholesterol synthesis marker concentrations (P < 0.01 for lathosterol) and lipid parameters (except for HDL-C concentrations). Age-related significant differences were also found, including higher concentrations of cholesterol absorption markers in association with increasing age.

      Conclusion

      In our study, the predictors of higher levels of cholesterol absorption markers were higher age and female gender.

      Abbreviations:

      ACEI (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), ARB (angiotensin II receptor blocker), BMI (body mass index), CAD (coronary artery disease), CVD (cardiovascular disease), GC/MS-SIM (gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry-selective ion monitoring), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HMGR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase), LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), NCS (noncholesterol sterols), PS (plant sterols), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglycerides)

      Keywords

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