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Primary upper extremity deep vein thrombosis: Clinical characteristics and outcome according to the presence of thoracic outlet syndrome

  • A. Riera-Mestre
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08907 Barcelona, Spain. Tel.: +34 93 260 76 99; fax: +34 93 260 79 67.
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain

    Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
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  • A. Buonaro
    Affiliations
    Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University Hospital, Naples, Italy
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  • A. Romera Villegas
    Affiliations
    Department of Vascular Surgery, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
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  • X. Corbella
    Affiliations
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain

    Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
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Published:February 12, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2016.01.024
      Venous thromboembolism (VTE) affects approximately 100 people per 100,000 population per year. Approximately one-third present as pulmonary embolism (PE) and two-thirds as deep vein thrombosis (DVT), mostly in the lower limbs [
      • White R.H.
      The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.
      ]. Upper-extremity DVT represents about 5% to 10% of all diagnosed VTE events [
      • Kucher N.
      Clinical practice. Deep-vein thrombosis of the upper extremities.
      ]. Doppler ultrasound is commonly used as the initial study for upper-extremity DVT [
      • Di Nisio M.
      • Van Sluis G.L.
      • Bossuyt P.M.
      • Buller H.R.
      • Porreca E.
      • Rutjes A.W.
      Accuracy of diagnostic tests for clinically suspected upper extremity deep vein thrombosis: a systematic review.
      ]. Primary upper-extremity DVT is defined as an unprovoked thrombosis with or without thombophilia or as a consequence of strenuous upper-extremity activity (Paget–Schroetter syndrome). Secondary upper-extremity DVT accounts for 80% of all upper-extremity DVTs and is defined as any venous thrombosis related to a predisposing factor, such as insertion of central venous catheters, pacemakers or malignancy [
      • Mai C.
      • Hunt D.
      Upper-extremity deep venous thrombosis: a review.
      ].
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