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Is there a relationship between hypomagnesemia and proton-pump inhibitors in patients on chronic hemodialysis?

Published:February 20, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2016.01.026

      Highlights

      • Long-PPI use has an impact on Mg levels in patients on hemodialysis.
      • Health care professionals must be aware of the potential impact of PPI use on Mg levels.
      • This is especially important in those patients who are receiving PPIs and have cardiac diseases.
      • These patients should be closely monitored for serum Mg concentrations.

      Abstract

      Aim

      We investigated the association among long-term proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) use with serum magnesium (Mg) levels in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, as well as possible association among PPI use and increased risk of cardiovascular (CVD) morbidity in HD patients.

      Methods

      Of 418 HD patients that were screened for inclusion, 136 were excluded due to incomplete medical data, duration of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for less than 12 months, use of Mg-based-phosphate binders or other Mg-based medications or either to presence of chronic increased GI losses. Among 282 patients included in the study, 170 patients were on PPIs.

      Results

      Serum Mg levels were significantly lower among PPI users vs. non-users (0.94 ± 0.2 vs. 1.03 ± 0.2 mmol/L; p < 0.0001). The median duration of PPI use was 27 ± 9.6 months (range from 12 to 108) and it was not significantly associated with Mg levels (r = 0.116; p = 0.167). Additionally, residual renal function didn't show a significant correlation with Mg concentration (r = −0.102; p = NS) in both groups of patients. The use of PPIs was an independent and strong predictor of low Mg concentrations even in multivariate analysis (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.2498–7.4594, p = 0.01). On the other hand, the daily dose of PPIs was not associated with low Mg levels. PPI users had a higher rate of adverse CVD events during the 1 year of follow-up in comparison to non-PPI users but that difference wasn't statistically significant (17.6% vs. 10.7%; p = 0.110).

      Conclusion

      We have found a significant association between PPI use and lower serum Mg levels in chronic HD patients.

      Keywords

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