- •Achalasia is rare and often diagnosed late.
- •It is characterized by functional gastro-oesophageal sphincter obstruction.
- •Aspiration pneumonia may complicate the achalasia.
- •Intrasphincteric botulinum toxin injection is one of the main treatments for achalasia.
Conflict of interest statement
Appendix A. Supplementary data
- Oesophageal motility disorders.Lancet. 2014; 383: 89-93
- Epidemiology and practice patterns of achalasia in a large multi-centre database.Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011; 33: 1209-1214
- Botulinum toxin treatment of oesophageal achalasia in the old old and oldest old: a 1-year follow-up study.Drugs Aging. 2005; 22: 779-783