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Poor sleeping has underrepresented medical, healthcare, and social costs?

  • Sergio Garbarino
    Affiliations
    Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genova, Genova, Italy

    Department of Health Sciences, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
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  • Walter G. Sannita
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genova, 3, Largo p. Daneo, 16132 Genova, Italy.
    Affiliations
    Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
    Search for articles by this author
Published:November 11, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2016.10.020
      Endemic in Western societies (~18–23%), sleep disorders are often co-morbid and rank as a major risk factor for psychiatric, cerebro-cardiovascular, metabolic or hormonal diseases [
      • Uehli K.
      • Mehta A.J.
      • Miedinger D.
      • Hug K.
      • Schindler C.
      • Holsboer-Trachsler E.
      • et al.
      Sleep problems and work injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      ]. They also aggravate everyday's life, often to a relevant extent. Subjects with sleep disorders complain of excessive daytime drowsiness, impaired cognition, mood changes, anxiety, fatigue, or reduced tolerance to pain more often than good sleepers [
      • Kyle S.D.
      • Morgan K.
      • Espie C.A.
      Insomnia and health-related quality of life.
      ]. They seek medical assistance or anticipate retirement more frequently and use more prescribed medication according to surveys and population-based studies [
      • Garbarino S.
      • Lanteri P.
      • Durando P.
      • Magnavita N.
      • Sannita W.G.
      Co-morbidity, mortality, quality of life and the healthcare/welfare/social costs of disordered sleep: a rapid review.
      ].

      Keywords

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