Delirium: Time to climb this babylon tower

Published:November 15, 2016DOI:


      • Delirium affects an estimated 14–56% of all hospitalized elderly patients.
      • Delirium remains grossly under-recognized in routine clinical practice.
      • Delirium should be handled as a true emergency.
      • Early diagnosis allows to counteract its permanent sequelae.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to European Journal of Internal Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Fong T.G.
        • Tulebaev S.R.
        • Inouye S.K.
        Delirium in elderly adults: diagnosis, prevention and treatment.
        Nat Rev Neurol. 2009; 5: 210-220
        • Ranhoff A.H.
        • Rozzini R.
        • Sabatini T.
        • Cassinadri A.
        • Boffelli S.
        • Trabucchi M.
        Delirium in a sub-intensive care unit for the elderly: occurrence and risk factors.
        Aging Clin Exp Res. 2006; 18: 440-445
        • Leslie D.L.
        • Inouye S.K.
        The importance of delirium: economic and societal costs.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011; 59: S241-S243
        • Inouye S.K.
        Delirium in older persons.
        N Engl J Med. 2006; 354: 1157-1165
        • Inouye S.K.
        • Bogardus Jr., S.T.
        • Charpentier P.A.
        • Leo-Summers L.
        • Acampora D.
        • Holford T.R.
        • et al.
        A multicomponent intervention to prevent delirium in hospitalized older patients.
        N Engl J Med. 1999; 340: 669-676
        • Marcantonio E.R.
        • Flacker J.M.
        • Wright R.J.
        • Resnick N.M.
        Reducing delirium after hip fracture: a randomized trial.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001; 49: 516-522
        • Inouye S.K.
        • van Dyck C.H.
        • Alessi C.A.
        • Balkin S.
        • Siegal A.P.
        • Horwitz R.I.
        Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium.
        Ann Intern Med. 1990; : 113941-113948
        • Bellelli G.
        • Nobili A.
        • Annoni G.
        • Morandi A.
        • Djade C.D.
        • Meagher D.J.
        • et al.
        Mannucci PM; REPOSI (REgistro POliterapie SIMI) investigators. Under-detection of delirium and impact of neurocognitive deficits on in-hospital mortality among acute geriatric and medical wards.
        Eur J Intern Med. 2015; 26: 696-704
        • Eden B.M.
        • Foreman M.D.
        Problems associated with under-recognition of delirium in critical care: a case study.
        Heart Lung. 1996; 25: 388-400