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Comorbidities in heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction

Published:March 01, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2017.02.010
      The recent Guidelines of heart failure (HF) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) propose an emerging classification of HF according to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) [
      • Ponikowski P.
      • Voors A.A.
      • Anker S.D.
      • Bueno H.
      • Cleland J.G.
      • Coats A.J.
      • et al.
      Authors/Task Force Members; Document Reviewers. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heartfailure: the Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.
      ]. Namely, patients with LVEF between 40 and 50% are classified in an intermediate group termed HF with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Although the authors acknowledge that this subtle distinction may account for important differences in underlying aetiologies, demographics, co-morbidities and response to therapies [
      • Butler J.
      • Fonarow G.C.
      • Zile M.R.
      • Lam C.S.
      • Roessig L.
      • Schelbert E.B.
      • et al.
      Developing therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: current state and future directions.
      ], the group, as a whole, is suggested as a mild systolic dysfunction with features of diastolic dysfunction (sic).

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