Art and historical personages with probable Graves disease

Published:March 24, 2017DOI:
      Graves disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, was described separately by Dr. Robert J Graves and Dr. Karl Adolph von Basedow in 1835 and 1840 respectively. Historians give credit for the first description to the Persian physician Sayyd Ismail al-Juriani, who in the XII century described a patient with goiter and exophthalmos [
      • Porter R.
      The Cambridge history of medicine.
      ]. We have analyzed 2000 paintings and sculptures from the western civilization to determine the prevalence of personages with Graves disease.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to European Journal of Internal Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Porter R.
        The Cambridge history of medicine.
        Cambridge University Press, New York2006
        • Papapetru D.D.
        Maximinus Daia, a Roman emperor who may have had Graves disease.
        Hormones. 2013; 12: 142-145
        • Sterpetti A.V.
        • DeToma G.
        • DeCEsare A.
        Thyroid swellings in the art of Italian Renaissance.
        Am J Surg. 2015; 210: 591-596
        • Sterpetti A.V.
        • Fiori E.
        • DeCesare A.
        Goiter in the art of Renaissance Europe.
        129. 2016: 892-895
        • Clark E.
        • Clark O.
        The remarkable; endocrine abnormalities in art.
        University California Press, Oakland USA2012