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Art and historical personages with probable Graves disease

Published:March 24, 2017DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2017.03.015
      Graves disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter, was described separately by Dr. Robert J Graves and Dr. Karl Adolph von Basedow in 1835 and 1840 respectively. Historians give credit for the first description to the Persian physician Sayyd Ismail al-Juriani, who in the XII century described a patient with goiter and exophthalmos [
      • Porter R.
      The Cambridge history of medicine.
      ]. We have analyzed 2000 paintings and sculptures from the western civilization to determine the prevalence of personages with Graves disease.

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