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A comparative analysis of novel cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with chronic heart failure

      Highlights

      • 4 Novel cardiovascular biomarkers (sST2, GDF-15, suPAR and H-FABP) were analyzed in a collective of heart failure patients.
      • Levels of sST2, suPAR and H-FABP were significantly higher in ICM and DCM patients compared to the control group.
      • H-FABP was found to be the most promising biomarker for the prediction of heart failure.

      Abstract

      Background

      Heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction remains a major therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of novel cardiovascular biomarkers, i.e. soluble suppression of tumorigenicity (sST2), growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in patients with ischaemic (ICM) or dilative cardiomyopathy (DCM).

      Materials and methods

      A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study: 65 were diagnosed with DCM and 59 patients suffering from ICM were included. 76 patients without coronary artery disease or signs of heart failure were included as controls. Plasma samples of all patients were analyzed by use of ELISA.

      Results

      Levels of sST2, suPAR and H-FABP were significantly higher in ICM and DCM patients compared to the control group (p < 0.0001). However, there were no significant differences between ICM and DCM in biomarker levels. Ejection fraction correlated inversely with cardiac biomarkers (sST2 p < 0.0001, GDF-15 p = 0.0394, suPAR p = 0.0029, H-FABP p < 0.0001). Similarly, CRP levels also showed a positive correlation with cardiac biomarkers. Renal insufficiency (p < 0.0001) and diabetes (sST2 p = 0.0021, GDF-15 p = 0.0055, suPAR p = 0.0339, H-FABP p = 0.0010) were significantly associated with a rise in cardiac biomarkers.

      Conclusion

      Novel cardiovascular biomarkers such as ST2, GDF-15, uPAR and H-FABP could offer a great potential for more precise diagnostic in ICM and DCM patients. H-FABP was the most promising marker in our study, followed by sST2, uPAR and GDF-15. Additional prospective studies will be necessary to further evaluate the potential clinical benefits in routine treatment of HF.

      Keywords

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