Pulmonary embolism in young adults (18–45 years)

      Although it is well recognised that incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) increases with age, PE has been shown to be an important cause of mortality in younger age groups. A study by Sakuma et al. in 2007 examining autopsy records found that PE accounted for 2.3% of deaths in the 20–39 age group [
      • Sakuma M.
      • Nakamura M.
      • Takahashi T.
      • et al.
      Pulmonary embolism is an important cause of death in young adults.
      ]. Only 20% of PEs discovered at autopsy had been diagnosed during life. However, there are relatively few studies looking specifically at PE in a younger age group.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to European Journal of Internal Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Sakuma M.
        • Nakamura M.
        • Takahashi T.
        • et al.
        Pulmonary embolism is an important cause of death in young adults.
        Circ J. 2007; 71: 1765-1770
        • Kline J.A.
        • Mitchell A.M.
        • Kabrhel C.
        • et al.
        Clinical criteria to prevent unnecessary diagnostic testing in emergency department patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.
        J Thromb Haemost. 2004; 2: 1247-1255
        • Kline J.A.
        • Courtney D.M.
        • Kabrhel C.
        • et al.
        Prospective multicenter evaluation of the pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria.
        J Thromb Haemost. 2008; 6: 772-780
        • Santosa F.
        • Moysidis T.
        • Moerchel C.
        • et al.
        Pulmonary embolism in young people.
        Hamostaseologie. 2014; 34: 88-92
        • Rosendaal F.R.
        Thrombosis in the young: epidemiology and risk factors.
        Thromb Haemost. 1997; 78: 1-6
        • Goldhaber S.Z.
        • Savage D.D.
        • Garrison R.J.
        • Castelli W.P.
        • Kannel W.B.
        • McNamara P.M.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for pulmonary embolism: the Framingham study.
        Am J Med. 1983; 74: 1023-1028
        • Goldhaber S.Z.
        • Grodstein F.
        • Stampfer M.J.
        • Manson J.E.
        • Colditz G.A.
        • Speizer F.E.
        • et al.
        A prospective study of risk factors for pulmonary embolism in women.
        JAMA. 1997; 277: 642-645
        • Heit J.A.
        • Spencer F.A.
        • White R.H.
        The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.
        J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2016; 41: 3-14
        • National Clinical Guideline Centre
        Venous thromboembolic disease: the management of venous thromboembolic diseases and the role of thrombophilia testing.
        Clinical guidance. 2012; 144 (Available from)
        • Torbicki A.
        • Perrier A.
        • Konstantinides S.
        • et al.
        Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism: the task force for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
        Eur Heart J. 2008; 29: 2276-2315