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Is the clinical presentation of chronic heart failure different in elderly versus younger patients and those with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction?

      Highlights

      • Clinical presentation of heart failure was different in patients 60–74 vs ≥75 years.
      • Clinical presentation of heart failure was different in HFrEF vs HFpEF.
      • Symptoms and signs of HF were more prevalent in particular in the older age group.
      • HFrEF vs HFpEF could not be identified by symptom history and physical examination.
      • HFrEF vs HFrEF might be differentiated by clinical, laboratory and ECG parameters.

      Abstract

      Background

      Whether the clinical presentation and in particular prevalence of symptoms and signs of heart failure (HF) is different in elderly versus younger patients and in those with reduced (HFrEF) versus preserved (HFpEF) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is a matter of ongoing debate.

      Aims

      To compare detailed clinical characteristics of these important subgroups and to develop a prediction rule for the differentiation of HFpEF and HFrEF based on clinical parameters.

      Methods

      The analysis was based on the Trial of Intensified versus standard Medical therapy in Elderly patients with Congestive Heart Failure (TIME-CHF) comprising 622 patients ≥60 years with HF including the whole LVEF spectrum.

      Results

      In the groups ≥75 years and with HFpEF typical symptoms and clinical signs of HF were more prevalent as compared to those <75 years or with HFrEF, respectively. The burden of comorbidities was higher in the older age group. HFrEF could not be differentiated from HFpEF by symptom history and clinical examination alone. However, a combination of age, presence of pulmonary rales, systolic blood pressure, cause of heart failure, osteoporosis, current smoking, NT-proBNP, haemoglobin, QRS width and heart rhythm allowed to identify HFrEF versus HFpEF with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 90% (c-statistics 0.91).

      Conclusions

      More symptoms and signs of HF were present both in the older age group and in patients with HFpEF. HFpEF versus HFrEF could be differentiated by a set of simple clinical, laboratory and ECG parameters but not by symptom history and physical examination alone.

      Keywords

      Abbrevations:

      HF (heart failure), HFpEF (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction), HFrEF (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction), TIME-CHF (Trial of Intensified versus standard Medical therapy in Elderly patients with Congestive Heart Failure), NT-proBNP (N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), LVEF (left ventricular ejection fraction), CHARM (Candesartan in Heart Failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity), IN-CHF (Italian Network on Congestive Heart Failure)
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