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Management of immune thrombocytopenia in elderly patients

Published:September 29, 2018DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2018.09.005

      Highlights

      • Special attention must be reserved for elderly patients with thrombocytopenia.
      • The diagnosis of primary ITP is challenging, mainly due to multiple comorbidities.
      • The increased risk of bleeding, thrombosis and infections impact treatment choice.
      • Steroids remain the first-line treatment, there is no consensus for subsequent line.
      • The balance between individual risks and benefits should drive treatment pathway.

      Abstract

      Despite the improvement in understanding its pathogenesis and the introduction of novel treatment options, the management of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) still remains challenging. Considering its increased incidence with aging and prolonged life-expectancy, ITP is often diagnosed in elderly patients, a subset that deserves some special precautions. Ensure the diagnosis is a crucial step, and carefully attention must be given in excluding other causes of thrombocytopenia, especially among older people that frequently suffer from many comorbidities. When it comes to treatment decision, it is worth keeping into account that the elderly have an increased risk of bleeding, thrombosis and infections, that they often require many concomitant therapies, including antiplatelet or anticoagulant agents, and that treatment-related toxicities are often increased and sometimes more dangerous that the disease itself. There are not dedicated guidelines, and only few specific studies. Steroids with or without IVIG remain the first-line treatment. Splenectomy is less effective than in youngers and burdened by an increased thrombotic and infectious risk. Rituximab is a good option in non-immunocompromised patients, but long-term remissions are few. Eltrombopag and romiplostim have a good safety and efficacy profile, and have become a prominent drug in this subset, even if they are associated with a possible increased risk of thrombosis, and long-term toxicity is unknown. Other drugs, such as dapsone and danazol, have a well-known efficacy and safety profile, and still represent a valid option among elderly patients.

      Keywords

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