Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe: a brief update on epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

Published:January 21, 2019DOI:


      • Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an emerging health threat that is spreading in many parts of Europe.
      • TBE is an important cause of CNS infection with a significant incidence of permanent sequelae.
      • No specific antiviral treatment is currently available for TBE.
      • Awareness and effective vaccination are fundamental to prevent TBE morbidity and mortality.


      Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an emerging health threat that is spreading in many parts of Europe. The mix of socio-economical, ecological and climatic factors as well as the presence of more susceptible hosts is actively contributing to the increasing number of TBE reported cases. TBE is an important cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection that can result in long-term neurological sequelae and even death. Diagnosis of TBE relays mainly on high clinical suspicion confirmed by serological and molecular assays both on serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with an ancillary role for neuroimaging in supporting the diagnosis. No specific antiviral treatment is currently available for TBE; indeed, supportive treatment as well as intensive care and assisted ventilation in severe forms may be needed. Because of limited option for TBE treatment, of crucial importance is effective vaccination to prevent disease-related morbidity and mortality.
      Due to expanding proportion of subject possibly exposed to TBE (and new populations such as: unaware travellers to TBE-endemic areas and immunocompromised patients), we performed a comprehensive review of TBE epidemiology, clinical presentation, current available diagnostic tools and treatment.
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