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Association of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with long-term outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure and moderate-to-severe kidney function impairment

Published:February 05, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2019.01.014

      Highlights

      • Long-term mortality remains high in heart failure patients with reduced EF and CKD.
      • RAS inhibitors are associated with lower mortality in stage 3B CKD patients.
      • A relation between the agents and prognosis is unclear in stage 4 or 5 CKD patients.

      Abstract

      Purpose

      Although guidelines recommend that patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) should be treated with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors, the long-term efficacy of RAS inhibitors in HFrEF patients with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear.

      Methods

      The present study included consecutive patients hospitalized for acute heart failure across five Japanese teaching hospitals. The impact of RAS inhibitors on 2-year all-cause mortality was evaluated in patients with an ejection fraction ≤40% and CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <45 mL/min/1.73 m2, at discharge. Its severity was subclassified from 3B to 5 according to eGFR.

      Results

      Overall, 553 patients (age, 76 ± 11 years; 68% male) were included. RAS inhibitors were prescribed more frequently in 227 patients with stage 3B (71.2%) than in 107 patients with stage 4 or 5 CKD (45.7%). All-cause mortality was recorded in 119 patients (23.4%) (55 [18.5%] patients with stage 3B; 64 [30.3%] patients with stage 4 or 5 CKD), within the median follow-up period of 609 (220–983) days. After many-to-one propensity score matching (87 pairs in stage 3; 60 pairs in stage 4 or 5 CKD), those with RAS inhibitors had reduced mortality rate in stage 3B (hazard ratio [HR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19–0.83) but not in stage 4 or 5 CKD (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.57–2.03).

      Conclusions

      In HFrEF patients with CKD, RAS inhibitors are associated with reduction in mortality in stage 3B CKD, but the association is less clear in stage 4 or 5 CKD.

      Keywords

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