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Secular trends in the association between obesity and hypertension among adults in the United States, 1999–2014

  • Seungho Ryu
    Affiliations
    Health and Sport Analytics Laboratory, Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi, United States of America
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  • Emily Frith
    Affiliations
    Physical Activity Epidemiology Laboratory, Exercise Psychology Laboratory, Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi, United States of America
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  • Zeljko Pedisic
    Affiliations
    Institute for Health and Sport (IHES), Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
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  • Minsoo Kang
    Affiliations
    Health and Sport Analytics Laboratory, Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi, United States of America
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  • Paul D. Loprinzi
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: The University of Mississippi, Department of Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation Management, 229 Turner Center; University, MS 38677, United States of America.
    Affiliations
    Physical Activity Epidemiology Laboratory, Exercise Psychology Laboratory, Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi, United States of America
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Published:March 01, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2019.02.012

      Highlights

      • A national sample was employed.
      • We evaluated secular trends in the association between obesity and hypertension.
      • The magnitude of this association has been increasing over time.

      Abstract

      Objective

      To examine the secular trends in the association between obesity and hypertension among American adults between 1999 and 2014.

      Methods

      Data from the 1999–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (eight survey cycles) were used. Obesity was determined from measured body mass index, with hypertension assessed from measured blood pressure and self-reported medication use. Meta-regression was used to examine the linear, quadratic, and cubic trends of the relationship between the observed odds ratio effect sizes (obesity and hypertension) and the NHANES cycles (year) using a random-effects model.

      Results

      Across the years of 1999 to 2014, there was a significant, positive linear trend (p = .006) in the association between overweight/obesity and hypertension.

      Conclusion

      Our findings suggest that the association between overweight/obesity and hypertension is becoming stronger over time. Continued surveillance of temporal changes associated with obesity and hypertension is necessary to monitor how such changes may underlie changes in the risk for chronic disease.

      Significance of the Study

      This novel study evaluates whether the magnitude of association between obesity and hypertension has changed over the last 15-years.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      BMI (Body Mass Index), BP (Blood Pressure), NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey)
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