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ST-elevation myocardial infarction in a real world population - An observational retrospective study with a sex perspective

      Highlights

      • The long-term, all-cause unadjusted mortality in STEMI patients was higher in women.
      • After adjustment for confounders, women had a better long-term prognosis.
      • Female sex predicted lower long-term mortality.
      • Risk factors, heart failure, age, and comorbidities rather than sex affect the worse outcome.

      Abstract

      Background

      Mortality after myocardial infarction is higher in women than in men. Data on the association between sex and mortality are conflicting and inconclusive. We evaluated whether there is a sex difference in survival and if sex is associated with the outcome in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

      Methods

      We analyzed 3671 STEMI patients. Long-term and 30-day mortality in men and women were compared.

      Results

      Unadjusted mortality at day 30 was higher in women [221 (8.7%) men died compared to 147 (13.1%) women; p < 0.0001]. After multivariate adjustments, this became insignificant (OR 1.65; 95% CI; 0.81 to 1.40). The long-term, unadjusted mortality was also higher in women [674 (26.3%) men died compared to 382 (34%) women; p < 0.0001]. After multivariable adjustments, female sex (adjusted HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.93; p = 0.002), bleeding (adjusted HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.10; p < 0.0001), renal dysfunction adjusted HR (1.60; 95% CI 1.40 to 1.84; p < 0.0001), hyperlipidemia (adjusted HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.40 to 1.85; p < 0.0001), arterial hypertension (adjusted HR 1.17; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.33; p = 0.015), diabetes (adjusted HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.35 to 1.78; p < 0.0001), age (adjusted HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06; p < 0.0001), anemia on admission (adjusted HR 1.38; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.58; p < 0.0001), and heart failure (adjusted HR 2.40; 95% CI 2.09 to 2.75; p < 0.0001) predicted long-term mortality.

      Conclusion

      Female sex was associated with a lower risk of dying in the long term. However, risk factors, age, and comorbidities associated with female patients affected the worse outcome.

      Keywords

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