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Giant cell arteritis incidence in La Reunion island, a particularly cosmopolite region of south hemisphere

Published:January 31, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2020.01.019
      Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is classified as a large vessel vasculitis according to the Chapel Hill nomenclature [
      • Jennette J.C.
      • Falk R.J.
      • Bacon P.A.
      • Basu N.
      • Cid M.C.
      • Ferrario F.
      • et al.
      2012 revised international chapel hill consensus conference nomenclature of vasculitides.
      ]. GCA is present worldwide but the reported incidence rates are highly variable depending on the location. The incidence is high in the North of Europe, especially in Norway (32.8/100,000 older than 50) or in North America (19.8/100,000 older than 50) [
      • Haugeberg G.
      • Irgens K.A.
      • Thomsen R.S
      No major differences in incidence of temporal arteritis in northern and western norway compared with reports from southern norway.
      ,
      • Chandran A.K.
      • Udayakumar P.D.
      • Crowson C.S.
      • Warrington K.J.
      • Matteson E.L
      The incidence of giant cell arteritis in olmsted county, minnesota, over a 60-year period 1950-2009.
      ] whereas the disease seems to be rare in North Africa [
      • Khalifa M.
      • Karmani M.
      • Jaafoura N.G.
      • Kaabia N.
      • Letaief A.O.
      • Bahri F.
      • et al.
      Epidemiological and clinical features of giant cell arteritis in tunisia.
      ] or in Japan (1.7/100,000 older than 50) [
      • Kobayashi S.
      • Yano T.
      • Matsumoto Y.
      • Numano F.
      • Nakajima N.
      • Yasuda K.
      • et al.
      Clinical and epidemiologic analysis of giant cell (temporal) arteritis from a nationwide survey in 1998 in japan: the first government-supported nationwide survey.
      ]. Data from other areas are scarce. In the South hemisphere, studies performed in Oceania showed that the incidence varies from 3.2 to 12.7/100,000 individuals older than 50, respectively in Australia and New Zealand [
      • Dunstan E.
      • Lester S.L.
      • Rischmueller M.
      • Dodd T.
      • Black R.
      • Ahern M.
      • et al.
      Epidemiology of biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis in south australia.
      ,
      • Abdul-Rahman A.M.
      • Molteno A.C.B.
      • Bevin T.H
      The epidemiology of giant cell arteritis in otago, new zealand: a 9-year analysis.
      ]. This suggests specific risk factors, related to the environment or genetic predisposition. In order to improve the knowledge about GCA epidemiology, we conducted a study in La Reunion island, a territory characterized by a marked genetic admixture and its location in Indian Ocean where no data are available. The main ethnics groups in La Reunion island are from Africa, Madagascar, India and Europe with a recent census estimate of 850,000 inhabitants.

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