- •Iron deficiency and anemia are very prevalent in patients with heart failure.
- •Intravenous iron was used in 34% of patients with anemia and iron deficiency.
- •Heart failure patients treated with intravenous iron had a worse clinical profile.
- •Intravenous iron in heart failure patients appears safe in mid-term follow-up.
Introduction and objectives
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to European Journal of Internal Medicine
- Iron deficiency: an ominous sign in patients with systolic chronic heart failure.Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 1872-1880
- The additive burden of iron deficiency in the cardiorenal-anaemia axis: scope of a problem and its consequences.Eur J Heart Fail. 2014; 16: 655-662
- Iron status in chronic heart failure: Impact on symptoms, functional class and submaximal exercise capacity.Rev Esp Cardiol. 2016; 69: 247-255
- Iron deficiency is a key determinant of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure regardless of anaemia status.Eur J Heart Fail. 2013; 15: 1164-1172
- Iron deficiency in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Open Heart. 2019; 6e001012
- Effect of oral iron repletion on exercise capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and iron deficiency: The IRONOUT HF randomized clinical trial.JAMA. 2017; 317: 1958-1966
- Intravenous iron reduces NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide in anemic patients with chronic heart failure and renal insufficiency.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 50: 1657-1665
- Effect of intravenous iron sucrose on exercise tolerance in anemic and non-anemic patients with symptomatic chronic heart failure and iron deficiency FERRIC-HF: a randomized, controlled, observer-blinded trial.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51: 103-112
- Ferric carboxymaltose in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency.N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 2436-2448
- Beneficial effects of long-term intravenous iron therapy with ferric carboxymaltose in patients with symptomatic heart failure and iron deficiency.Eur Heart J. 2014; 36: 657-668
- Effect of ferric carboxymaltose on exercise capacity in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency.Circulation. 2017; 136: 1374-1383
- Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.Eur Heart J. 2016; 37 (2016): 2129-2200
- ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 70 (2017): 776-803
- Definition of iron deficiency based on the gold standard of bone marrow iron staining in heart failure patients.Circ Heart Fail. 2018; 11e004519
- Rationale and design of Ferinject assessment in patients with iron deficiency and chronic Heart Failure (FAIR-HF) study: a randomized, placebo-controlled study of intravenous iron supplementation in patients with and without anaemia.Eur J Heart Fail. 2009; 11: 1084-1091
- Screening, diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency in chronic heart failure: putting the 2016 European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines into clinical practice.Eur J Heart Fail. 2018; 20: 1664-1672
- Impact of epoetin alfa on clinical end points in patients with chronic renal failure: a meta-analysis.Kidney Int. 2004; 65: 757-767
- Iron deficiency in community-dwelling US adults with self-reported heart failure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Prevalence and association with anaemia and inflammation.Circ Heart Fail. 2011; 4: 599-606
González-Costello J, Comín-Colet J, Lupón J, et al. Importance of iron deficiency in patients with chronic heart failure as a predictor of mortality and hospitalizations: insights from an observational cohort study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord18:206. doi:10.1186/s12872-018-0942-x.
- Prevalence and prognostic impact of anemia and iron deficiency in patients hospitalized in an internal medicine ward: The PRO-IRON study.Eur J Haematol. 2017; 99: 505-513
- Treatment of anemia with darbepoetin alfa in systolic heart failure.N Engl J Med. 2013; 368: 1210-1219
- the TREAT Investigators. A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease.N Engl J Med. 2009; 361: 2019-2032
- Iron deficiency and anaemia in heart failure: understanding the FAIR-HF trial.Eur J Heart Fail. 2010; 12: 1159-1162
- Prevalence of underlying malignancies in iron-deficient heart failure.ESC Heart Fail. 2019; 6: 37-44
- Long-term effects of iron deficiency in patients with heart failure with or without anemia: the RAID-HF follow-up study.Clin Res Cardiol. 2019; 108: 93-100
- Iron overload cardiomyopathy: from diagnosis to management.Curr Opin Cardiol. 2018; 33: 334-340
- Effects of ferric carboxymaltose on hospitalizations and mortality rates in iron-deficient heart failure patients: an individual patient data meta-analysis.Eur J Heart Fail. 2018; 20: 125-133