Advertisement

Some concerns about poor outcome predictors for influenza virus infections

      According to World Health Organization (WHO), influenza virus infections cause 3-5 million clinically severe cases and 290-650 thousand deaths per year due to solely respiratory disease [ ]. Besides its mortality and morbidity, influenza virus infections bring about severe economic burden on health-care systems. Identifying the prognostic factors and early recognition of the severe cases can help reduce these undesired outcomes. Older age, comorbidities (e.g. pulmonary diseases, hearth failure, chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease and diabetes mellitus), immunosuppressive conditions and pregnancy are known as classical risk factors for severe disease and mortality [
      • Paules C.
      • Subbarao K.
      Influenza.
      ,
      • Mertz D.
      • Geraci J.
      • Winkup J.
      • Gessner B.D.
      • Ortiz J.R.
      • Loeb M.
      Pregnancy as a risk factor for severe outcomes from influenza virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
      ]. Moreover, usage of some tools and scoring-systems for risk stratification have emerging importance to determine disease severity and to react quickly before clinical deterioration.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to European Journal of Internal Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Influenza (Seasonal) [Available from: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(seasonal).

        • Paules C.
        • Subbarao K.
        Influenza.
        Lancet. 2017; 390: 697-708
        • Mertz D.
        • Geraci J.
        • Winkup J.
        • Gessner B.D.
        • Ortiz J.R.
        • Loeb M.
        Pregnancy as a risk factor for severe outcomes from influenza virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
        Vaccine. 2017; 35: 521-528
        • Papadimitriou-Olivgeris M.
        • Gkikopoulos N.
        • Wüst M.
        • Ballif A.
        • Simonin V.
        • Maulini M.
        • et al.
        Predictors of mortality of influenza virus infections in a Swiss Hospital during four influenza seasons: Role of quick sequential organ failure assessment.
        European Journal of Internal Medicine. 2019; 74 (Published online: December 31, 2019): 86-91
        • McGaughey J.
        • Alderdice F.
        • Fowler R.
        • Kapila A.
        • Mayhew A.
        • Moutray M.
        Outreach and Early Warning Systems (EWS) for the prevention of intensive care admission and death of critically ill adult patients on general hospital wards.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;
        • Liu V.X.
        • Lu Y.
        • Carey K.A.
        • Gilbert E.R.
        • Afshar M.
        • Akel M.
        • et al.
        Comparison of early warning scoring systems for hospitalized patients with and without infection at risk for in-hospital mortality and transfer to the intensive care unit.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2020; 3 (e205191-e)
        • Raith E.P.
        • Udy A.A.
        • Bailey M.
        • McGloughlin S.
        • MacIsaac C.
        • Bellomo R.
        • et al.
        Prognostic accuracy of the SOFA score, SIRS criteria, and qSOFA score for in-hospital mortality among adults with suspected infection admitted to the intensive care unit.
        JAMA. 2017; 317: 290-300
        • Singer M.
        • Deutschman C.S.
        • Seymour C.W.
        • Shankar-Hari M.
        • Annane D.
        • Bauer M.
        • et al.
        The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3).
        JAMA. 2016; 315: 801-810
        • Tokioka F.
        • Okamoto H.
        • Yamazaki A.
        • Itou A.
        • Ishida T.
        The prognostic performance of qSOFA for community-acquired pneumonia.
        J Intensive care. 2018; 6: 46
        • Chang S.-H.
        • Yeh C.-C.
        • Chen Y.-A.
        • Hsu C.-C.
        • Chen J.-H.
        • Chen W.-L.
        • et al.
        Quick-SOFA score to predict mortality among geriatric patients with influenza in the emergency department.
        Medicine. 2019; 98 (e15966)