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Screening for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using transient elastography - a prospective, cross sectional study

Published:August 21, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2020.08.005

      Highlights

      • The prevalence of elevated CAP is high in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
      • Diabetic patients had high prevalence of moderate fibrosis based on elastography.
      • Diabetic patients had high prevalence of advanced fibrosis based on elastography.
      • More than one third of diabetic patients had advanced fibrosis on liver biopsy.
      • A more aggressive screening for NAFLD and fibrosis in diabetic patients is needed.

      Abstract

      Aim

      To investigate the prevalence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), based on increased controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurements obtained by transient elastography. In addition, we aimed to identify parameters that correlate with increased elastographic parameters of steatosis and fibrosis to provide a better indication when a patient with T2DM should be screened for NAFLD.

      Methods

      We conducted prospective, cross-sectional study of 679 consecutive adult patients with diagnosed T2DM mean age 65.2±11.6. NAFLD was defined by transient elastography. In 105 patients a percutaneous liver biopsy (LB) was done.

      Results

      The prevalence of NAFLD based on transient elastography was 83.6%. Independent factors associated with increased CAP were higher body mass index, longer T2DM duration, higher serum triglyceride, lower levels of vitamin D, higher C-reactive protein, and higher HOMA-IR. The prevalence of moderate liver fibrosis was 26.9% and advanced liver fibrosis 12.6%. Independent factors associated with moderated fibrosis based on elastography were higher body mass index and higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), while independent factors associated with advanced fibrosis were female gender, higher body mass index, higher levels of ALT, gama-glutamil transferase and C-reactive protein. Sixty-four (60.9%) of 105 patients with LB had NAFLD activity score ≥5. Regarding the presence and stages of fibrosis based on LB, moderate fibrosis was found in 29.5% of patients, while 29.5% had advanced fibrosis and 6.7% cirrhosis.

      Conclusion

      This study supports more aggressive screening for NAFLD and fibrosis in patients with T2DM.

      Keywords

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