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Trends and outcomes of device-related 30-day readmissions after left ventricular assist device implantation

Published:October 07, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2020.10.004

      Highlights

      • Among LVAD recipients who survived to discharge from index admission, 28.1% had 30-day readmission.
      • Most of the readmissions occurred in the first 15 days after discharge from the index admission.
      • The most frequent cause of readmissions was gastrointestinal bleeding, followed by heart failure.
      • Intracranial bleeding, device thrombosis, and ischemic stroke had the highest mortality.
      • Readmission rates for gastrointestinal bleeding decreased, whereas device infection increased.

      Abstract

      Background

      Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) improve morbidity and mortality in end-stage heart failure patients, but high rates of readmissions remain a problem after implantation. We aimed to assess the incidence, trends, outcomes, and predictors of device-related 30-day readmissions after LVAD implantation.

      Methods

      The National Readmission Database was used to identify patients who underwent LVAD implantation between 2012 and 2017 and those with 30-day readmissions.

      Results

      The analysis included a total of 16499 adults who survived the index hospitalization for LVAD implantation. Among those, 28.1% were readmitted at 30 days, and the readmission rate has been grossly stable during the study period. Most of the readmissions occurred in the first 15 days after discharge from the index admission. The most frequent cause of readmissions was gastrointestinal bleeding (14.9% of readmissions), followed by heart failure, arrhythmias, device infection, and device thrombosis. Among reasons for readmission, intracranial bleeding was associated with highest mortality (37.6%), followed by device thrombosis (13.1%), and ischemic stroke (7.6%). Intracranial bleeding and device thrombosis were associated with lengthier stay (20.4 and 15.5 days, respectively). Readmission rates for gastrointestinal bleeding decreased, whereas device infection increased. Multivariate logistic regression model revealed the length of stay, oxygen dependence, gastrointestinal bleeding at index admission, depression and ECMO, private insurance as independent predictors of 30-day readmission.

      Conclusion

      Over one-fourth of LVAD recipients have 30-day readmissions, with most of them occurring within 15 days. Most frequent cause of readmission was gastrointestinal bleeding, which was associated with the lowest in-hospital mortality among other complications.

      Keywords

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