Advertisement

Sarcopenia measurement in research and clinical practice

      Highlights

      • Sarcopenia is an age-related loss of muscle mass associated with decreased function.
      • Sarcopenia has no gold standard diagnostic tool.
      • Diagnostic criteria include muscle mass, strength and physical performance.
      • Muscle mass is becoming less central as a diagnostic criterion
      • The most common tool is that of the European Working Group for Sarcopenia (EWGSOP).

      Abstract

      Sarcopenia is a disease related to accelerated loss of skeletal muscle and subsequent decline in functional capacity. It affects approximately 13% of the world's population aged over 60 years. Sarcopenia is primarily managed and prevented through a combination of exercise prescription combined with appropriate nutritional strategies. This review outlines diagnostic and case finding/screening tools for age-related (primary) sarcopenia used in research and clinical practice. Diagnostic tools critically reviewed include those of the: European Workgroup for Sarcopenia (EWGSOP) versions 1 and 2; Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) versions 1 and 2; Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH); and the Sarcopenia Definition and Outcomes Consortium (SDOC). Criteria used by diagnostic tools (muscle mass, muscle strength and physical functioning/performance) are also detailed. Case-finding tools include the SARC-F questionnaire, Ishii's formula and Goodman's screening grid. Additionally, this review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each diagnostic and case-finding tool, and examines their ability to reliably predict adverse clinical outcomes and patient responses to potential therapies.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to European Journal of Internal Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Narici MV
        • Maffulli N.
        Sarcopenia: characteristics, mechanisms and functional significance.
        Br Med Bull. 2010; 95: 139-159
        • Cruz-Jentoft AJ
        • Sayer AA.
        Sarcopenia.
        Lancet (London, England). 2019; 393: 2636-2646
        • Fielding RA
        • Vellas B
        • Evans WJ
        • Bhasin S
        • Morley JE
        • Newman AB
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia: an undiagnosed condition in older adults. Current consensus definition: prevalence, etiology, and consequences. International working group on sarcopenia.
        J Am Med Directors Assoc. 2011; 12: 249-256
        • Perez-Zepeda MU
        • Sgaravatti A
        • Dent E.
        Sarcopenia and post-hospital outcomes in older adults: A longitudinal study.
        Arch Gerontol Geriatrics. 2017; 69: 105-109
        • Yang M
        • Liu Y
        • Zuo Y
        • Tang H.
        Sarcopenia for predicting falls and hospitalization in community-dwelling older adults: EWGSOP versus EWGSOP2.
        Sci Rep. 2019; 9: 17636
        • Tang T
        • Wu L
        • Yang L
        • Jiang J
        • Hao Q
        • Dong B
        • et al.
        A sarcopenia screening test predicts mortality in hospitalized older adults.
        Sci Rep. 2018; 8: 2923
        • Liu P
        • Hao Q
        • Hai S
        • Wang H
        • Cao L
        • Dong B.
        Sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Maturitas. 2017; 103: 16-22
        • Beaudart C
        • Zaaria M
        • Pasleau F
        • Reginster JY
        • Bruyere O.
        Health outcomes of sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12e0169548
        • Zhang XM
        • Dou QL
        • Zeng Y
        • Yang Y
        • Cheng ASK
        • Zhang WW.
        Sarcopenia as a predictor of mortality in women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis and systematic review.
        BMC Cancer. 2020; 20: 172
        • Zhang X
        • Wang C
        • Dou Q
        • Zhang W
        • Yang Y
        • Xie X.
        Sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among older nursing home residents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BMJ Open. 2018; 8e021252
        • Beaudart C
        • McCloskey E
        • Bruyere O
        • Cesari M
        • Rolland Y
        • Rizzoli R
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia in daily practice: assessment and management.
        BMC Geriatrics. 2016; 16: 170
        • Jia S
        • Qiao R
        • Xiao Y
        • Qin D
        • Zhao W
        • Zhao Y
        • et al.
        Prognostic value of sarcopenia in survivors of hematological malignances undergoing a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Support Care Cancer. 2020;
        • Su H
        • Ruan J
        • Chen T
        • Lin E
        • Shi L.
        CT-assessed sarcopenia is a predictive factor for both long-term and short-term outcomes in gastrointestinal oncology patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Cancer Imaging. 2019; 19: 82
        • Sim M
        • Prince RL
        • Scott D
        • Daly RM
        • Duque G
        • Inderjeeth CA
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia definitions and their associations with mortality in older australian women.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2019; 20 (e2): 76-82
        • Woo J
        • Leung J
        • Morley JE.
        Defining sarcopenia in terms of incident adverse outcomes.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2015; 16: 247-252
        • Dent E
        • Martin FC
        • Bergman H
        • Woo J
        • Romero-Ortuno R
        • Walston JD.
        Management of frailty: opportunities, challenges, and future directions.
        Lancet (London, England). 2019; 394: 1376-1386
        • Dennison EM
        • Sayer AA
        • Cooper C.
        Epidemiology of sarcopenia and insight into possible therapeutic targets.
        Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2017; 13: 340-347
        • Steffl M
        • Bohannon RW
        • Sontakova L
        • Tufano JJ
        • Shiells K
        • Holmerova I.
        Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Clin Interven Aging. 2017; 12: 835-845
        • Beaudart C
        • Dawson A
        • Shaw SC
        • Harvey NC
        • Kanis JA
        • Binkley N
        • et al.
        Nutrition and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia: systematic review.
        Osteopor Int. 2017; 28: 1817-1833
        • Tyrovolas S
        • Koyanagi A
        • Olaya B
        • Ayuso-Mateos JL
        • Miret M
        • Chatterji S
        • et al.
        Factors associated with skeletal muscle mass, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity in older adults: a multi-continent study.
        J Cachexia, Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016; 7: 312-321
        • Liu X
        • Hao Q
        • Yue J
        • Hou L
        • Xia X
        • Zhao W
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenia obesity in comparison: prevalence, metabolic profile, and key differences: results from WCHAT study.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2020; 24: 429-437
        • Dent E
        • Hoogendijk EO
        • Visvanathan R
        • Wright ORL.
        Malnutrition screening and assessment in hospitalised older people: a review.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2019; 23: 431-441
        • Chen LK
        • Lee WJ
        • Peng LN
        • Liu LK
        • Arai H
        • Akishita M.
        Recent advances in sarcopenia research in Asia: 2016 update from the asian working group for sarcopenia.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016; 17: 767.e1-767.e7
        • Morley JE.
        Anorexia of ageing: a key component in the pathogenesis of both sarcopenia and cachexia.
        J Cachexia, Sarcopenia Muscle. 2017; 8: 523-526
        • Dent E
        • Hoogendijk EO
        • Wright ORL.
        New insights into the anorexia of ageing: from prevention to treatment.
        Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2019; 22: 44-51
        • Anker SD
        • Morley JE
        • von Haehling S.
        Welcome to the ICD-10 code for sarcopenia.
        J Cachexia, Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016; 7: 512-514
        • Bauer J
        • Morley JE
        • Schols A
        • Ferrucci L
        • Cruz-Jentoft AJ
        • Dent E
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia: a time for action. An SCWD position paper.
        J Cachexia, Sarcopenia Muscle. 2019; 10: 956-961
        • Mayhew AJ
        • Amog K
        • Phillips S
        • Parise G
        • McNicholas PD
        • de Souza RJ
        • et al.
        The prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults, an exploration of differences between studies and within definitions: a systematic review and meta-analyses.
        Age Ageing. 2019; 48: 48-56
        • Berger MJ
        • Doherty TJ.
        Sarcopenia: prevalence, mechanisms, and functional consequences.
        Interdiscip Top Gerontol. 2010; 37: 94-114
        • Palus S
        • Springer JI
        • Doehner W
        • von Haehling S
        • Anker M
        • Anker SD
        • et al.
        Models of sarcopenia: Short review.
        Int J Cardiol. 2017; 238: 19-21
        • Scott D.
        Sarcopenia in older adults.
        J Clin Med. 2019; 8: 1844
        • Rosenberg IH.
        Sarcopenia: origins and clinical relevance.
        J Nutr. 1997; 127 (990s-1s)
        • Baumgartner RN
        • Koehler KM
        • Gallagher D
        • Romero L
        • Heymsfield SB
        • Ross RR
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico.
        Am J Epidemiol. 1998; 147: 755-763
        • Janssen I
        • Heymsfield SB
        • Ross R.
        Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002; 50: 889-896
        • Langer HT
        • Mossakowski AA
        • Baar K
        • Alcazar J
        • Martin-Rincon M
        • Alegre LM
        • et al.
        Commentaries on viewpoint: rejuvenation of the term sarcopenia.
        J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985). 2019; 126: 257-262
        • Batsis JA
        • Mackenzie TA
        • Barre LK
        • Lopez-Jimenez F
        • Bartels SJ.
        Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mortality in older adults: results from the national health and nutrition examination survey III.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014; 68: 1001-1007
        • Offord NJ
        • Clegg A
        • Turner G
        • Dodds RM
        • Sayer AA
        • Witham MD.
        Current practice in the diagnosis and management of sarcopenia and frailty - results from a UK-wide survey.
        J Frail Sarcopenia Falls. 2019; 4: 71-77
        • Arai H
        • Wakabayashi H
        • Yoshimura Y
        • Yamada M
        • Kim H
        • Harada A.
        Chapter 4 treatment of sarcopenia.
        Geriatrics Gerontol Int. 2018; 18: 1-17
        • Gilligan LA
        • Towbin AJ
        • Dillman JR
        • Somasundaram E
        • Trout AT.
        Quantification of skeletal muscle mass: sarcopenia as a marker of overall health in children and adults.
        Pediatr Radiol. 2020; 50: 455-464
        • Kawaguchi Y
        • Hanaoka J
        • Ohshio Y
        • Okamoto K
        • Kaku R
        • Hayashi K
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia predicts poor postoperative outcome in elderly patients with lung cancer.
        General Thoracic Cardiovas Surg. 2019; 67: 949-954
        • Cruz-Jentoft AJ
        • Baeyens JP
        • Bauer JM
        • Boirie Y
        • Cederholm T
        • Landi F
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people.
        Age Ageing. 2010; 39: 412-423
        • Bianchi L
        • Ferrucci L
        • Cherubini A
        • Maggio M
        • Bandinelli S
        • Savino E
        • et al.
        The predictive value of the EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia: results from the InCHIANTI study.
        J Gerontol. 2015; 71: 259-264
        • Bachettini NP
        • Bielemann RM
        • Barbosa-Silva TG
        • Menezes AMB
        • Tomasi E
        • Gonzalez MC.
        Sarcopenia as a mortality predictor in community-dwelling older adults: a comparison of the diagnostic criteria of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020; 74: 573-580
        • Sim M
        • Prince RL
        • Scott D
        • Daly RM
        • Duque G
        • Inderjeeth CA
        • et al.
        Utility of four sarcopenia criteria for the prediction of falls-related hospitalization in older Australian women.
        Osteopor Int. 2019; 30: 167-176
        • Zhang X
        • Zhang W
        • Wang C
        • Tao W
        • Dou Q
        • Yang Y.
        Sarcopenia as a predictor of hospitalization among older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BMC Geriatrics. 2018; 18: 188
        • Simonsen C
        • de Heer P
        • Bjerre ED
        • Suetta C
        • Hojman P
        • Pedersen BK
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia and postoperative complication risk in gastrointestinal surgical oncology: a meta-analysis.
        Ann Surg. 2018; 268
        • Erős A
        • Soós A
        • Hegyi P
        • Szakács Z
        • Benke M
        • Szűcs Á
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia as an independent predictor of the surgical outcomes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis.
        Surg Today. 2020; 50: 1138-1150
        • Cruz-Jentoft AJ
        • Bahat G
        • Bauer J
        • Boirie Y
        • Bruyere O
        • Cederholm T
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis.
        Age Ageing. 2019; 48: 16-31
        • Costanzo L
        • De Vincentis A
        • Di Iorio A
        • Bandinelli S
        • Ferrucci L
        • Antonelli Incalzi R
        • et al.
        Impact of low muscle mass and low muscle strength according to EWGSOP2 and EWGSOP1 in community-dwelling older people.
        J Gerontol Series A, Biol Sci Med Sci. 2020; 75: 1324-1330
        • Reiss J
        • Iglseder B
        • Kreutzer M
        • Weilbuchner I
        • Treschnitzer W
        • Kassmann H
        • et al.
        Case finding for sarcopenia in geriatric inpatients: performance of bioimpedance analysis in comparison to dual X-ray absorptiometry.
        BMC Geriatrics. 2016; 16: 52
        • Chen LK
        • Liu LK
        • Woo J
        • Assantachai P
        • Auyeung TW
        • Bahyah KS
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian working group for sarcopenia.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014; 15: 95-101
        • Chen LK
        • Woo J
        • Assantachai P
        • Auyeung TW
        • Chou MY
        • Iijima K
        • et al.
        Asian working group for sarcopenia: 2019 consensus update on sarcopenia diagnosis and treatment.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2020; 21 (.e2): 300-307
        • Tabara Y
        • Ikezoe T
        • Setoh K
        • Sugimoto K
        • Kawaguchi T
        • Kosugi S
        • et al.
        Comparison of diagnostic significance of the initial versus revised diagnostic algorithm for sarcopenia from the Asian working group for sarcopenia.
        Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2020; 89104071
        • Studenski SA
        • Peters KW
        • Alley DE
        • Cawthon PM
        • McLean RR
        • Harris TB
        • et al.
        The FNIH sarcopenia project: rationale, study description, conference recommendations, and final estimates.
        J Gerontol Series A, Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014; 69: 547-558
        • Dam TT
        • Peters KW
        • Fragala M
        • Cawthon PM
        • Harris TB
        • McLean R
        • et al.
        An evidence-based comparison of operational criteria for the presence of sarcopenia.
        J Gerontol Series A, Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014; 69: 584-590
        • Bianchi L
        • Maietti E
        • Abete P
        • Bellelli G
        • Bo M
        • Cherubini A
        • et al.
        Comparing EWGSOP2 and FNIH sarcopenia definitions: agreement and 3-year survival prognostic value in older hospitalized adults: the GLISTEN study.
        J Gerontol. 2019; 75: 1331-1337
        • Bhasin S
        • Travison TG
        • Manini TM
        • Patel S
        • Pencina KM
        • Fielding RA
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia definition: the position statements of the sarcopenia definition and outcomes consortium.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2020; 68: 1410-1418
        • Deutz NEP
        • Ashurst I
        • Ballesteros MD
        • Bear DE
        • Cruz-Jentoft AJ
        • Genton L
        • et al.
        The underappreciated role of low muscle mass in the management of malnutrition.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2019; 20: 22-27
        • Cruz-Jentoft AJ
        • Landi F
        • Schneider SM
        • Zuniga C
        • Arai H
        • Boirie Y
        • et al.
        Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the international sarcopenia initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS).
        Age Ageing. 2014; 43: 748-759
        • Zanker J
        • Scott D
        • Reijnierse EM
        • Brennan-Olsen SL
        • Daly RM
        • Girgis CM
        • et al.
        Establishing an operational definition of sarcopenia in Australia and New Zealand: Delphi method based consensus statement.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2019; 23: 105-110
        • Bauer JM
        • Morley JE.
        Editorial: body composition measurements in older adults.
        Curre Opin Clin Nutr Metabol Care. 2020; 23: 1-3
        • Dent E
        • Morley JE
        • Cruz-Jentoft AJ
        • Arai H
        • Kritchevsky SB
        • Guralnik J
        • et al.
        International clinical practice guidelines for sarcopenia (ICFSR): screening, diagnosis and management.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2018;
        • Addison O
        • Marcus RL
        • LaStayo PC
        • Ryan AS.
        Intermuscular fat: a review of the consequences and causes.
        Int J Endocrinol. 2014; 2014309570
        • Scott D
        • Johansson J
        • McMillan LB
        • Ebeling PR
        • Nordstrom A
        • Nordstrom P.
        Mid-calf skeletal muscle density and its associations with physical activity, bone health and incident 12-month falls in older adults: the healthy ageing initiative.
        Bone. 2019; 120: 446-451
        • Scott D
        • Trbojevic T
        • Skinner E
        • Clark RA
        • Levinger P
        • Haines TP
        • et al.
        Associations of calf inter- and intra-muscular adipose tissue with cardiometabolic health and physical function in community-dwelling older adults.
        J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2015; 15: 350-357
        • Buckinx F
        • Landi F
        • Cesari M
        • Fielding RA
        • Visser M
        • Engelke K
        • et al.
        Pitfalls in the measurement of muscle mass: a need for a reference standard.
        J Cachexia, Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018; 9: 269-278
        • Scafoglieri A
        • Clarys JP.
        Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: gold standard for muscle mass?.
        J Cachexia, Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018; 9: 786-787
        • Marzetti E
        • Calvani R
        • Tosato M
        • Cesari M
        • Di Bari M
        • Cherubini A
        • et al.
        Sarcopenia: an overview.
        Aging Clin Exp Res. 2017; 29: 11-17
        • Boutin RD
        • Yao L
        • Canter RJ
        • Lenchik L.
        Sarcopenia: current concepts and imaging implications.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015; 205: W255-W266
        • Ticinesi A
        • Meschi T
        • Narici MV
        • Lauretani F
        • Maggio M.
        Muscle ultrasound and sarcopenia in older individuals: a clinical perspective.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017; 18: 290-300
        • Di Vincenzo O
        • Marra M
        • Scalfi L.
        Bioelectrical impedance phase angle in sport: a systematic review.
        J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2019; 16: 49
        • Reiss J
        • Iglseder B
        • Kreutzer M
        • Weilbuchner I
        • Treschnitzer W
        • Kässmann H
        • et al.
        Case finding for sarcopenia in geriatric inpatients: performance of bioimpedance analysis in comparison to dual X-ray absorptiometry.
        BMC Geriatrics. 2016; 16: 52
        • Shafiee G
        • Keshtkar A
        • Soltani A
        • Ahadi Z
        • Larijani B
        • Heshmat R.
        Prevalence of sarcopenia in the world: a systematic review and meta- analysis of general population studies.
        J Diabetes Metabol Disorders. 2017; 16: 21
        • Looijaard W
        • Stapel SN
        • Dekker IM
        • Rusticus H
        • Remmelzwaal S
        • Girbes ARJ
        • et al.
        Identifying critically ill patients with low muscle mass: agreement between bioelectrical impedance analysis and computed tomography.
        Clin Nutr. 2020; 39: 1809-1817
        • Kilic MK
        • Kizilarslanoglu MC
        • Arik G
        • Bolayir B
        • Kara O
        • Dogan Varan H
        • et al.
        Association of bioelectrical impedance analysis-derived phase angle and sarcopenia in older adults.
        Nutr Clin Pract. 2017; 32: 103-109
        • Kosoku A
        • Uchida J
        • Nishide S
        • Kabei K
        • Shimada H
        • Iwai T
        • et al.
        Association of sarcopenia with phase angle and body mass index in kidney transplant recipients.
        Sci Rep. 2020; 10: 266
        • Matias CN
        • Nunes CL
        • Francisco S
        • Tomeleri CM
        • Cyrino ES
        • Sardinha LB
        • et al.
        Phase angle predicts physical function in older adults.
        Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2020; 90104151
        • Pessoa DF
        • de Branco FMS
        • Dos Reis AS
        • Limirio LS
        • Borges LP
        • Barbosa CD
        • et al.
        Association of phase angle with sarcopenia and its components in physically active older women.
        Aging Clin Exp Res. 2019;
        • Velazquez-Alva MC
        • Irigoyen Camacho ME
        • Lazarevich I
        • Delgadillo Velazquez J
        • Acosta Dominguez P
        • Zepeda Zepeda MA.
        Comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia using skeletal muscle mass index and calf circumference applying the European consensus definition in elderly Mexican women.
        Geriatrics Gerontol Int. 2017; 17: 161-170
        • Dent E
        • Chapman I
        • Piantadosi C
        • Visvanathan R.
        Nutritional screening tools and anthropometric measures associate with hospital discharge outcomes in older people.
        Aus J Ageing. 2015; 34: E1-E6
        • Clark RV
        • Walker AC
        • O'Connor-Semmes RL
        • Leonard MS
        • Miller RR
        • Stimpson SA
        • et al.
        Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans.
        J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985). 2014; 116: 1605-1613
        • Zanker J
        • Patel S
        • Blackwell T
        • Duchowny K
        • Brennan-Olsen S
        • Cummings SR
        • et al.
        Walking speed and muscle mass estimated by the D(3)-creatine dilution method are important components of sarcopenia associated with incident mobility disability in older men: a classification and regression tree analysis.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2020; 21 (1997-2002.e1)
        • Morley JE.
        Treatment of sarcopenia: the road to the future.
        J Cachexia, Sarcopenia Muscle. 2018; 9: 1196-1199
        • Akishita M
        • Kozaki K
        • Iijima K
        • Tanaka T
        • Shibasaki K
        • Ogawa S
        • et al.
        Chapter 1 definitions and diagnosis of sarcopenia.
        Geriatrics Gerontol Int. 2018; 18: 7-12
        • Weng C-H
        • Tien C-P
        • Li C-I
        • L'Heureux A
        • Liu C-S
        • Lin C-H
        • et al.
        Mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference and mortality in Chinese long-term care facility residents: a prospective cohort study.
        BMJ Open. 2018; 8e020485
        • García-Peña C
        • García-Fabela LC
        • Gutiérrez-Robledo LM
        • García-González JJ
        • Arango-Lopera VE
        • Pérez-Zepeda MU.
        Handgrip strength predicts functional decline at discharge in hospitalized male elderly: a hospital cohort study.
        PLoS One. 2013; 8: e69849
        • Menant JC
        • Weber F
        • Lo J
        • Sturnieks DL
        • Close JC
        • Sachdev PS
        • et al.
        Strength measures are better than muscle mass measures in predicting health-related outcomes in older people: time to abandon the term sarcopenia?.
        Osteopor Int. 2017; 28: 59-70
        • Yeung SSY
        • Reijnierse EM
        • Trappenburg MC
        • Hogrel JY
        • McPhee JS
        • Piasecki M
        • et al.
        Handgrip strength cannot be assumed a proxy for overall muscle strength.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018; 19: 703-709
        • Studenski S
        • Perera S
        • Patel K
        • Rosano C
        • Faulkner K
        • Inzitari M
        • et al.
        Gait speed and survival in older adults.
        JAMA. 2011; 305: 50-58
        • Stanaway FF
        • Gnjidic D
        • Blyth FM
        • Le Couteur DG
        • Naganathan V
        • Waite L
        • et al.
        How fast does the grim reaper walk? receiver operating characteristics curve analysis in healthy men aged 70 and over.
        BMJ (Clin Res ed). 2011; 343: d7679
        • Lyons JG
        • Heeren T
        • Stuver SO
        • Fredman L.
        Assessing the agreement between 3-meter and 6-meter walk tests in 136 community-dwelling older adults.
        J Aging Health. 2015; 27: 594-605
        • Guralnik JM
        • Simonsick EM
        • Ferrucci L
        • Glynn RJ
        • Berkman LF
        • Blazer DG
        • et al.
        A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission.
        J Gerontol. 1994; 49: M85-M94
        • Pavasini R
        • Guralnik J
        • Brown JC
        • di Bari M
        • Cesari M
        • Landi F
        • et al.
        Short physical performance battery and all-cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BMC Med. 2016; 14: 215
        • Fortes-Filho SQ
        • Aliberti MJR
        • Apolinario D
        • Melo-Fortes JA
        • Sitta MC
        • Jacob-Filho W
        • et al.
        Role of gait speed, strength, and balance in predicting adverse outcomes of acutely ill older outpatients..
        J Nutr, Health Aging. 2020; 24: 113-118
        • O'Hoski S
        • Bean JF
        • Ma J
        • So HY
        • Kuspinar A
        • Richardson J
        • et al.
        Physical function and frailty for predicting adverse outcomes in older primary care patients.
        Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2020; 101: 592-598
        • Pinheiro PA
        • Carneiro JAO
        • Coqueiro RS
        • Pereira R
        • Fernandes MH.
        Chair stand testˮ as simple tool for sarcopenia screening in elderly women..
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2016; 20: 56-59
        • Podsiadlo D
        • Richardson S.
        The timed “up & go”: a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991; 39: 142-148
        • Chua KY
        • Lim WS
        • Lin X
        • Yuan JM
        • Koh W-P.
        Handgrip strength and timed up-and-go (TUG) test are predictors of short-term mortality among elderly in a population-based cohort in Singapore.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2020; 24: 371-378
        • Malmstrom TK
        • Morley JE.
        SARC-F: a simple questionnaire to rapidly diagnose sarcopenia.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2013; 14: 531-532
        • Ida S
        • Kaneko R
        • Murata K.
        SARC-F for screening of sarcopenia among older adults: a meta-analysis of screening test accuracy.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018;
        • Kemmler W
        • Sieber C
        • Freiberger E
        • Stengel von
        • The S.
        • Questionnaire SARC-F
        Diagnostic overlap with established sarcopenia definitions in older german men with sarcopenia.
        Gerontology. 2017; 63: 411-416
        • Malmstrom TK
        • Miller DK
        • Simonsick EM
        • Ferrucci L
        • Morley JE.
        SARC-F: a symptom score to predict persons with sarcopenia at risk for poor functional outcomes.
        J Cachexia, Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016; 7: 28-36
        • Morley JE.
        Frailty and sarcopenia in elderly.
        Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2016; 128: 439-445
        • Bahat G
        • Yilmaz O
        • Kılıç C
        • Oren MM
        • Karan MA.
        Performance of SARC-F in regard to sarcopenia definitions, muscle mass and functional measures.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2018; 22: 898-903
        • Kera T
        • Kawai H
        • Hirano H
        • Kojima M
        • Watanabe Y
        • Motokawa K
        • et al.
        SARC-F: a validation study with community-dwelling older Japanese adults.
        Geriatrics Gerontol Int. 2019; 19: 1172-1178
        • Woo J
        • Yu R
        • Leung J.
        A 3-Item SARC-F.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018; 19: 223-228
        • Thacker S
        • Skelton M
        • Harwood R.
        Psychiatry and the geriatric syndromes – creating constructive interfaces.
        BJPsych Bulletin. 2017; 41: 71-75
        • Li M
        • Kong Y
        • Chen H
        • Chu A
        • Song G
        • Cui Y.
        Accuracy and prognostic ability of the SARC-F questionnaire and Ishii's score in the screening of sarcopenia in geriatric inpatients.
        Br J Med Biol Res = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas. 2019; 52: e8204
        • Yang M
        • Hu X
        • Xie L
        • Zhang L
        • Zhou J
        • Lin J
        • et al.
        SARC-F for sarcopenia screening in community-dwelling older adults: are 3 items enough?.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97: e11726
        • Beaudart C
        • Locquet M
        • Bornheim S
        • Reginster J-Y
        • Bruyère O.
        French translation and validation of the sarcopenia screening tool SARC-F.
        Eu Geriatric Med. 2018; 9: 29-37
        • Parra-Rodriguez L
        • Szlejf C
        • Garcia-Gonzalez AI
        • Malmstrom TK
        • Cruz-Arenas E
        • Rosas-Carrasco O.
        Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Spanish-language version of the SARC-F to assess sarcopenia in mexican community-dwelling older adults.
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016; 17: 1142-1146
        • Sánchez-Rodríguez D
        • Marco E
        • Dávalos-Yerovi V
        • López-Escobar J
        • Messaggi-Sartor M
        • Barrera C
        • et al.
        Translation and validation of the Spanish version of the SARC-F questionnaire to assess sarcopenia in older people.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2019; 23: 518-524
        • Yang M
        • Hu X
        • Xie L
        • Zhang L
        • Zhou J
        • Lin J
        • et al.
        Screening sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults: SARC-F vs SARC-F combined with calf circumference (SARC-CalF).
        J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2018; 19 (.e1-.e8): 277
        • Goodman MJ
        • Ghate SR
        • Mavros P
        • Sen S
        • Marcus RL
        • Joy E
        • et al.
        Development of a practical screening tool to predict low muscle mass using NHANES 1999-2004.
        J Cachexia, Sarcopenia Muscle. 2013; 4: 187-197
        • Locquet M
        • Beaudart C
        • Reginster JY
        • Petermans J
        • Bruyere O.
        Comparison of the performance of five screening methods for sarcopenia.
        Clin Epidemiol. 2018; 10: 71-82
        • Ishii S
        • Tanaka T
        • Shibasaki K
        • Ouchi Y
        • Kikutani T
        • Higashiguchi T
        • et al.
        Development of a simple screening test for sarcopenia in older adults.
        Geriatrics Gerontol Int. 2014; 14: 93-101
        • Woo J
        • Arai H
        • Ng TP
        • Sayer AA
        • Wong M
        • Syddall H
        • et al.
        Ethnic and geographic variations in muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance measures.
        Eu Geriatric Med. 2014; 5: 155-164
        • Visser M
        • Schaap LA.
        Consequences of Sarcopenia.
        Clin Geriatr Med. 2011; 27: 387-399
        • Correa-de-Araujo R
        • Hadley E.
        Skeletal muscle function deficit: a new terminology to embrace the evolving concepts of sarcopenia and age-related muscle dysfunction.
        J Gerontol. 2014; 69: 591-594
        • Fried LP
        • Tangen CM
        • Walston J
        • Newman AB
        • Hirsch C
        • Gottdiener J
        • et al.
        Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype.
        J Gerontol Series A, Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; 56: M146-M156
        • Dent E
        • Kowal P
        • Hoogendijk EO.
        Frailty measurement in research and clinical practice: a review.
        Eu J Internal Med. 2016; 31: 3-10
        • Hoogendijk EO
        • Afilalo J
        • Ensrud KE
        • Kowal P
        • Onder G
        • Fried LP.
        Frailty: implications for clinical practice and public health.
        Lancet (London, England). 2019; 394: 1365-1375
        • Dent E
        • Morley JE
        • Cruz-Jentoft AJ
        • Woodhouse L
        • Rodriguez-Manas L
        • Fried LP
        • et al.
        Physical frailty: ICFSR international clinical practice guidelines for identification and management.
        J Nutr Health Aging. 2019; 23: 771-787