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Prognostic interplay of kidney function with sarcopenia, anemia, disability and cognitive impairment. The GLISTEN study

      Highlights

      • eGFR, anemia, sarcopenia, cognitive and functional status may affect prognosis.
      • Survival tree revealed relevant prognostic interactions among these risk factors.
      • Multidimensional assessment should be part of routine care for older patients.

      Abstract

      Background

      Interactions between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and several comorbidities may potentially affect prognosis of older hospitalized patients. This study aims at evaluating the prognostic interactions between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), anemia, sarcopenia, functional and cognitive dysfunction, and 3-year mortality among older patients discharged from acute care hospitals.

      Methods

      Our series consisted of 504 older adults enrolled in a multicenter observational study carried out in twelve Acute Geriatric and Internal Medicine wards throughout Italy. CKD was defined as an eGFR< 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Anemia, Short Portable Status Mental Questionnaire (SPMSQ), Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL), sarcopenia, and Charlson index were considered in the analysis. 3-year survival was investigated by Cox regression and prognostic interactions among study variables were assessed by survival tree analysis. Accuracy of different survival models was investigated by C-index.

      Results

      eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, anemia, sarcopenia, SPMSQ ≥ 5, and impairment in 1 or more BADL were significantly associated with mortality. Survival tree analysis showed that patients with eGFR < 35.32 ml/min/1.73 m2 and SPMSQ ≥ 5 had the highest risk of mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 5.49, 95%CI: 3.04–9.94] followed by those with eGFR < 35.32 ml/min/1.73 m2, hemoglobin < 11.95 g/dL and SPMSQ < 5 (HR:3.65; 95%CI: 2.21–6.02) and those with eGFR 35.32–47.99 ml/min/1.73 m2 and sarcopenia (HR:3.65; 95%CI: 1.99–6.69). Survival tree leaf node membership had good accuracy in predicting the study outcome (C-index: 0.73, 95%CI:0.70-0.76).

      Conclusions

      Interactions among study risk factors designed distinct risk profiles in older patients discharged from acute care hospitals, that may help identify patients needing targeted interventions and appropriate follow-up after discharge.

      Keywords

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