One year after the ESC/EAS guidelines on cholesterol control. What's the new evidence? What's missing?

  • Maurizio Averna
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infantile Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University of Palermo, Marina Square, 61, Palermo 90133, Italy.
    Affiliations
    Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infantile Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
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  • Alberico L. Catapano
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan and IRCCS Multimedica, Via Balzaretti, 9, 20133 Milan Italy.
    Affiliations
    Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan and IRCCS MultiMedica, Sesto S. Giovanni, Milan, Italy
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Published:October 30, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2021.10.017

      Abstract

      The recent ESC/EAS 2019 Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias are centred on the causal role of low density lipoprotein (LDL), or more generally apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, in atherosclerosis as an essential principle. Despite updated goals and recommendations, that have further highlighted the importance of a powerful reduction in LDL-C levels to reduce the individual CV risk, some challenges remain to be addressed in view of future guideline elaboration. In this review, we will summarize the new evidence from clinical trials since 2019 guideline release and discuss the possible challenges for the future.

      Keywords

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