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The effect of telemedicine in heart failure based on frailty phenotypes

Published:December 16, 2021DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2021.12.008
      Heart failure (HF) is a disease of the elderly. In people aged>65years, it is the most common cause of rehospitalisations [
      • Gheorghiade M.
      • Vaduganathan M.
      • Fonarow G.C.
      • Bonow R.O.
      Rehospitalization for heart failure: problems and perspectives.
      ]. Nearly half of the patients diagnosed with HF will be frail (44.5%, 95% CI, 36.2%–52.8%) [
      • Denfeld Q.E.
      • Winters-Stone K.
      • Mudd J.O.
      • Gelow J.M.
      • Kurdi S.
      • Lee C.S.
      The prevalence of frailty in heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
      ]. Not only is the prevalence of frailty high in HF patients, older persons with frailty are also at increased risk of developing new onset HF [
      • Khan H.
      • Kalogeropoulos A.P.
      • Georgiopoulou V.V.
      • et al.
      Frailty and risk for heart failure in older adults: the health, aging, and body composition study.
      ]. However, frailty is not only associated with the elderly as it can also occur in younger persons (aged <60 years) with HF [
      • Khan H.
      • Kalogeropoulos A.P.
      • Georgiopoulou V.V.
      • et al.
      Frailty and risk for heart failure in older adults: the health, aging, and body composition study.
      ]. The presence of frailty in HF patients accelerates disease progression of HF and increases their risk of rehospitalisation, mortality and functional decline at one year [
      • Rodriguez-Pascual C.
      • Paredes-Galan E.
      • Ferrero-Martinez A.I.
      • et al.
      The frailty syndrome is associated with adverse health outcomes in very old patients with stable heart failure: a prospective study in six Spanish hospitals.
      ].
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