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Epidemiology of portal vein thrombosis in liver cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Author Footnotes
    # Co-first authors.
    Jiahui Pan
    Footnotes
    # Co-first authors.
    Affiliations
    Liver Cirrhosis Study Group, Department of Gastroenterology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang 110840, PR China

    Postgraduate College, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, PR China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # Co-first authors.
    Le Wang
    Footnotes
    # Co-first authors.
    Affiliations
    Liver Cirrhosis Study Group, Department of Gastroenterology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang 110840, PR China

    Postgraduate College, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, PR China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # Co-first authors.
    Fangbo Gao
    Footnotes
    # Co-first authors.
    Affiliations
    Liver Cirrhosis Study Group, Department of Gastroenterology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang 110840, PR China

    Postgraduate College, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, PR China
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  • Yang An
    Affiliations
    Liver Cirrhosis Study Group, Department of Gastroenterology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang 110840, PR China

    Postgraduate College, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, PR China
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  • Yue Yin
    Affiliations
    Liver Cirrhosis Study Group, Department of Gastroenterology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang 110840, PR China
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  • Xiaozhong Guo
    Affiliations
    Liver Cirrhosis Study Group, Department of Gastroenterology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang 110840, PR China
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  • Filipe Gaio Nery
    Affiliations
    Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto, Porto, Portugal

    EpiUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
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  • Eric M. Yoshida
    Affiliations
    Division of Gastroenterology, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada
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  • Xingshun Qi
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author.
    Affiliations
    Liver Cirrhosis Study Group, Department of Gastroenterology, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang 110840, PR China

    Postgraduate College, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, PR China

    Postgraduate College, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, PR China
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  • Author Footnotes
    # Co-first authors.

      Highlights

      • This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and incidence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in liver cirrhosis.
      • In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the target population does not include patients with hepatocellular carcinoma or abdominal surgery.
      • Approximately one seventh of cirrhotic patients have PVT, and one tenth will develop PVT.
      • Progression of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension seems to be in parallel with risk of PVT.

      Abstract

      Background

      Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) may be associated with negative outcomes in patients with liver cirrhosis. However, the prevalence and incidence of PVT in liver cirrhosis are heterogeneous among studies and have not been sufficiently determined yet.

      Methods

      The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Eligible studies would explore the prevalence and/or incidence of PVT in liver cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma or abdominal surgery. Pooled proportion with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effect model. Factors associated with the presence/occurrence of PVT were also extracted.

      Results

      Among the 8549 papers initially identified, 74 were included. Fifty-four studies explored the prevalence of PVT in liver cirrhosis with a pooled prevalence of 13.92% (95%CI=11.18–16.91%). Based on cross-sectional data, Child-Pugh class B/C, higher D-dimer, ascites, and use of non-selective beta-blockers (NSBBs) were associated with the presence of PVT in liver cirrhosis. Twenty-three studies explored the incidence of PVT in liver cirrhosis with a pooled incidence of 10.42% (95%CI=8.16–12.92%). Based on cohort data, Child-Pugh class B/C, higher model of end-stage liver disease score, higher D-dimer, lower platelets count, decreased portal flow velocity, ascites, use of NSBBs, and moderate or high-risk esophageal varices could predict the occurrence of PVT in liver cirrhosis.

      Conclusion

      Approximately one seventh of cirrhotic patients have PVT, and one tenth will develop PVT. Progression of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension seems to be in parallel with the risk of PVT. Prospective studies with detailed information about classification and extension of PVT in liver cirrhosis are needed.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

      List of abbreviations in the order of appearance:

      PVT (portal vein thrombosis), LT (liver transplantation), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses), MELD (model of end-stage liver disease), INR (international normalized ratio), NSBBs (non-selective beta-blockers), JBI (Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal), OR (odds ratio), WMD (weighted mean difference), CI (confidence interval)
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