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Serum and urine angiopoietin-like protein 4 levels correlate with different degrees of dislipidemea and proteinuria in patients with primary nephrotic syndrome

      Primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) is characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, edema and hyperlipidemia. Angiopoietin like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a secretory glycoprotein and belongs to the angiopoietin-like protein family. It's well known that ANGPTL4 is a key regulator of lipid metabolism and has been widely reported in metabolic diseases and cardiovascular diseases [
      • Kersten S.
      Role and mechanism of the action of angiopoietin-like protein ANGPTL4 in plasma lipid metabolism.
      ]. Recently, it was reported that ANGPTL4 secreted by glomerular podocytes aggravates podocyte injury and it is closely related to proteinuria in rats with nephrotic syndrome (NS) [
      • Clement L.C.
      • Avila-Casado C.
      • Mace C.
      • et al.
      Podocyte-secreted angiopoietin-like-4 mediates proteinuria in glucocorticoid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome.
      ].
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        Role and mechanism of the action of angiopoietin-like protein ANGPTL4 in plasma lipid metabolism.
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