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Hyperglycemia drives the transition from pre-frailty to frailty: The Monteforte study

  • Pasquale Mone
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Institute for Neuroimmunology and Inflammation (INI), Einstein – Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center (ES-DRC), Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, New York, NY 10461, United States

    University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy

    ASL Avellino, Italy
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  • Stefano De Gennaro
    Affiliations
    ASL Avellino, Italy
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  • Salvatore Frullone
    Affiliations
    ASL Avellino, Italy
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  • Anna Marro
    Affiliations
    ASL Avellino, Italy
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  • Gaetano Santulli
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, New York, NY 10461, United States.
    Affiliations
    Department of Medicine, Institute for Neuroimmunology and Inflammation (INI), Einstein – Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center (ES-DRC), Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, New York, NY 10461, United States

    Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, “Federico II” University, Naples , Italy

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Fleischer Institute for Diabetes and Metabolism (FIDAM), Einstein Institute for Aging Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, United States
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Published:January 10, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2023.01.006
      Pre-frailty is a condition that precedes frailty; in 2001, Linda Fried and colleagues defined pre-frailty as the presence of 1 or 2 out of the 5 Fried criteria [
      • Fried L.P.
      • Tangen C.M.
      • Walston J.
      • Newman A.B.
      • Hirsch C.
      • Gottdiener J.
      • et al.
      Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype.
      ]. Hence, pre-frail older adults represent an intermediate category between normal and frail older adults. Comorbidities are known to play a pivotal role in frailty, in addition to contributing to increasing healthcare costs [
      • Massussi M.
      • Adamo M.
      • Rosato S.
      • Seccareccia F.
      • Barbanti M.
      • Biancari F.
      • et al.
      Functional and metabolic frailty predicts mortality in patients undergoing TAVI: insights from the OBSERVANT II study.
      ,
      • Vetrano D.L.
      • Foebel A.D.
      • Marengoni A.
      • Brandi V.
      • Collamati A.
      • Heckman G.A.
      • et al.
      Chronic diseases and geriatric syndromes: the different weight of comorbidity.
      ,
      • Simpson F.R.
      • Justice J.N.
      • Pilla S.J.
      • Kritchevsky S.B.
      • Boyko E.J.
      • Munshi M.N.
      • et al.
      An examination of whether diabetes control and treatments are associated with change in frailty index across 8 years: an ancillary exploratory study from the action for health in diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial.
      ]. Hypertension is one of the most common conditions in pre-frailty, and its role in the onset of frailty remains debated [
      • Benetos A.
      • Petrovic M.
      • Strandberg T.
      Hypertension management in older and frail older patients.
      ,
      • Mone P.
      • Pansini A.
      • Frullone S.
      • de Donato A.
      • Buonincontri V.
      • De Blasiis P.
      • et al.
      Physical decline and cognitive impairment in frail hypertensive elders during COVID-19.
      ,
      • Zucchelli A.
      • Vetrano D.L.
      • Marengoni A.
      • Grande G.
      • Romanelli G.
      • Calderon-Larranaga A.
      • et al.
      Frailty predicts short-term survival even in older adults without multimorbidity.
      ]. Similarly, admission and stress hyperglycemia are prevailing risk factors of adverse outcomes, with or without diabetes [
      • Russo M.P.
      • Elizondo C.M.
      • Giunta D.H.
      • Grande Ratti M.F
      Prevalence of hyperglycemia and incidence of stress hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients: a retrospective cohort.
      ,
      • Mone P.
      • Gambardella J.
      • Minicucci F.
      • Lombardi A.
      • Mauro C.
      • Santulli G.
      Hyperglycemia drives stent restenosis in STEMI patients.
      ]. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, the impact of hyperglycemia in the pre-frailty to frailty transition has never been investigated hitherto.

      Keywords

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        Functional and metabolic frailty predicts mortality in patients undergoing TAVI: insights from the OBSERVANT II study.
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